James Larkin was an Irish labor organizer and activist who was responsible for the establishment of several unions and labor organizations, including the Irish Transport and General Workers’ Union (ITGWU). He helped the Irish workers gained fair employment rights and made it easier for them to unionize.
Jim Larkin was born on January 21, 1876 in Liverpool, England. He grew up in the slums with little formal education.
He supported his family financially by working various jobs that include a foreman at a Liverpool dock. Being a socialist, Larkin joined the National Union of Dock Labourers (NUDL) and became a full-time union organizer in 1905.
He was transferred out of NUDL in 1907 because the union was not pleased with his militant strike methods. Afterwards, he established the ITGWU, whose political agenda included the legal rights of the 8-hour workday and a pension for workers 60 years or older.
Before Larkin became prominent in securing workers’ rights in Ireland, less than 10% of the Irish workers were unionized and most of the unions were British. Many workers and activists felt neglected by the British unions and demanded an Irish-based union. It is accurate to say that he was the answer to their prayers.
ITGWU was formed with a goal to unite all Irish workers, skilled and unskilled, to fight for their rights. Larkin was also responsible for the formation of the Labour Party in 1912. He led a series of strikes, one of them was the historic 1913 Dublin Lockout.
He staged anti-war demonstrations in Dublin when the First World War broke out. The main anti-war message that he wanted to relay to the Irish people was for them to fight for Ireland only and not for any other country.
The Irish press opposed Larkin and his unions but he gained the support of William Butler Yeats, Patrick Pearse, and Constance Markievicz. In 1914, Larkin traveled to the United States to raise money to fight the British.
He was arrested, tried, and convicted of anarchy and communism in 1920. He was pardoned three years later and was deported back to Ireland.
In 1924, he organized the Workers’ Union of Ireland (WUI). Jim Larkin remained active until his death on January 30, 1947. Because of his legacy, he went down in Irish history as a magnificent leader and a visionary who fought for the workers’ rights.